John II, "The Perfect Prince", (born 1455 at Lisbon, Portugal — died October 1495, Alvor; Portugal), King of Portugal from 1481 to 1495, is regarded as one of the greatest Portuguese rulers, chiefly because of his ruthless assertion of royal authority over the great nobles and his resumption of the exploration of Africa and the quest for India.
John was the great-grandson of the founder of the House of Aviz, John I. He fought bravely alongside his father King Afonso V during the conquest of Arzila in Morocco, thus winning his knighthood, as was the Aviz tradition,. In 1474 his father entrusted him the “trade of Guinea” and the African explorations. When Afonso V claimed the Castilian throne in opposition to Isabella I, he appointed John his regent (April 1475). John mobilized an army and marched to support his father.
However, Afonso´s defeat was a tremendous political victory for the Catholic Monarchs, assuring them the throne of Castile. An ashamed Afonso V departed to France in a fruitless search for an alliance, while John defended the frontier and parried a Spanish counterattack. Afonso’s lack of success caused him to announce his abdication. John was proclaimed king, but his father returned and resumed his reign, concluding the disadvantageous Treaty of Alcáçovas before his death in August 1481.
When he became King, John summoned the Cortes at Évora (November 1481) and imposed a drastic oath of obedience on his vassals. He also reasserted the beneplacet, requiring papal letters to be submitted to him before publication.
He accused the powerful Duke of Bragança of treason and had him tried and beheaded at Évora (June 1483). Although evidence was produced that the Braganças had intrigued with Castile, it seems clear that John sought vengeance for their having caused the death of his maternal grandfather, the regent Dom Pedro.
He confiscated the Braganças’ vast estates and appointed royal judges in what had been private jurisdictions of the nobility. When a second conspiracy sought to remove him and bestow the crown on his wife’s brother the Duke of Viseu, John killed his rival with his own hand (August 1484).
He suffered a long illness and died in 1495 at the small castle of Alvor in the Algarve - some say he was poisoned. John’s exercise of personal power, particularly against the nobles, explains the epithet the Perfect Prince, which owes its origin to Lope de Vega’s play about him.
His personal colours were green and purple. He chose "Pela Lei e Pela Grei" (For Law and for Nation) as his motto; the symbol of his personal entreprise was a pelican feeding its young with its own blood.
Un post parfait pour le Prince Parfait : superbes figurines, excellente présentation, une histoire brève qui se termine dans un petit château loin des fastes, et une devise/emblême que j'aime beaucoup...Parfait!ResponderEliminar
Merci, merci! :D Oui, une vie tres courte mais pleine de évenements dramatiques! João I et João II sont pour moi les plus grands Rois de la Dinastie Aviz :)A bientôt chèr ami! :DEliminar
Fantastic history and beauty painted miniature! I will learn a little bit more facts from the history of Portugal :)ResponderEliminar
Thank you so much Michał :) More to come in the next weeks, I hope!! Cheers my friend!Eliminar
A short dramatic life, great work!ResponderEliminar
Thanks Francis! :D Indeed, one wonders what this man could have done if only he had lived a little longer... Cheers!Eliminar
An amazing character and more great work from yourself.ResponderEliminar
Thank you Michael, I´m glad you enjoyed this. The Avis Dinasty was filled with these kind of men, strong willed and ruthless. This one was also brave, very intelligent and cunning! A prototype for Machiavelli ;) Cheers!Eliminar
grazie come sempre per la nuova pagina di storia
Grazie a te Luca, per le tue visite e sempre belle parole! :D Saluti Cordiali!1Eliminar
Thanks Rodger, I´m glad you liked it :D Cheers!Eliminar
Beautifully painted and superbly presented as always!ResponderEliminar
Thank you Gordon for your visit and always kind words!! Cheers my friend!Eliminar
You always have the best of mounted figurines, Rog. Love his knights too!ResponderEliminar
Thanks Dez, you´re too kind!! :D Have a nice Sunday my friend, cheers!! :DEliminar
Excellent brushwork and interesting bio.ResponderEliminar
Thanks Jonathan! :D John II was one of the most fascinating Kings we had :) Cheers!Eliminar
Wonderfully painted King and attendants! I'd say he was an "Expansionist" :)ResponderEliminar
Thanks Dean! :D Lol, you´re right on the spot! All these Aviz Kings had a - lets call it penchant.... for expansion ;) Cheers my friend!Eliminar
Wonderful work RM. That's for another interesting bit of history.ResponderEliminar
Thanks Rod for taking the time to read it and for your always kind words! :D Greetings!Eliminar
Magnífico trabalho de pintura!!ResponderEliminar
Obrigado Ana! :D Beijinho e boa semana :DEliminar
Again a wonderfull post with lots of historical information about the figures you painted, and a very nice presentation.ResponderEliminar
Excellent painted armour!
Thank you so much for your kind support Peter! I´m glad you enjoy it :D Cheers!Eliminar
Hola amigo, pero cómo me gustan estas minis. Me encantan los caballeros medievales. Te han quedado de lujo.ResponderEliminar
Hola Amigo Kike!! Gracias, me alegra mucho que te hayan gustado! Un saludo con amistad!Eliminar
A really good read with a miniature that stands out!ResponderEliminar
Thanks Piotr, you´re very kind and I´m glad you liked it! :D This is indeed a very interesting period of Portuguese and European History :D Cheers!!Eliminar
Y muy buenas miniaturas si señor
Muchas Gracias Amigo José Daniel! :D Me alegra que te gusten estas minis! :D Saludos!!Eliminar
Fantásticos esos colores verde y púrpura, me encantaron, ¡todo!ResponderEliminar